a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1: 1 Sam. 11:3; Luk 7:24; 9:52), of prophets (Isa 42:19; Hag 1:13), of priests (Mal 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Rev 1:20).

It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2Sa 24:16,17; 2Ki 19:35), the wind (Psa 104:4).

But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen 18:2, 22. Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen 32:24,30), to Joshua at Gilgal (Jos 5:13,15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.

(1.) The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Gen. 16:7, 10, 11; Jdg 13:1-21; Mat 28:2-5; Hbr 1:4, etc.

These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. (Dan 7:10; Mat 26:53; Luk 2:13; Hbr 12:22,23. They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zec 1:9,11; Dan 10:13; 12:1; 1Th 4:16; Jud 1:9; Eph 1:21; Col 1:16).

(2.) As to their nature, they are spirits (Hbr 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" (Luk 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Gen 18:2; 19:1,10; Luk 24:4; Act 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them (Job 1:6; 38:7; Dan 3:25; Dan 3:28) and to men (Luk 3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures (Job 4:18; Mat 24:36; 1Pe 1:12). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" (Mat 25:41; Rev 12:7,9), and that they are "reserved unto judgement" (2Pe 2:4). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psa 78:25). Angels never die (Luk 20:36). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power (Mar 13:32; 2Th 1:7; Psa 103:20). They are called "holy" (Luk 9:26), "elect" (1Ti 5:21). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Luk 20:36). They are not to be worshipped (Col 2:18; Rev 19:10).

(3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence (Exd 12:23; Psa 104:4; Hbr 11:28; 1Cr 10:10; 2Sa 24:16; 1Ch 21:16; 2Ki 19:35; Act 12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen 18; 19; 24:7,40; 28:12; 32:1). They appear to rebuke idolatry (Jdg 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Jdg 6:11,12), and to consecrate Samson (13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1Ki 19:5; 2Ki 6:17; Zech. 1-6, Dan 4:13,23; 10:10,13,20,21).

The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent (Mat 1:20; Luk 1:26-38), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Mat 4:11; Luk 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Mat 28:2-8; Jhn 20:12,13; Act 1:10,11). They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Hbr 1:14; Psa 34:7; 91:11; Mat 18:10; Act 5:19; 8:26; 10:3; 12:7; 27:23). They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luk 15:10). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luk 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Mat 13:39,41,49; 16:27; 24:31). The passages (Psa 34:7, Matt. 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples.

The "angel of his presence" (Isa 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, 21; 32:34; 33:2; Num 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luk 1:19).

Blessings, in Christ.
In His Glorious Name Ministries

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